Apartheid Varna System
This part gives an
in-depth account of the oppression in the apartheid caste system, and the
restrictions placed on the subjugated races with full quotations and
references to the `sacred' scriptures that sanction these. The varna caste
system is decidedly racial in origin [ Greg ], whilst the jati
profession-based caste system is not.
Apartheid Varna System and
Other Caste Systems
The varna system of India during the Brahmanic Ages (1500 BC - 1000 AD) is to
be distinguished from caste systems in other parts of the world. The Brahmanic
varna system (`varnashramadharma') is basically a genocidal apartheid system
designed to exterminate the `black varna'. Caste systems in other parts of the
world (eg. US South, Brazil, Islamic millet systems in the Ottoman Empire and
the Delhi Caliphate etc.) were by contrast far milder, permitting the
co-existence of different races and discouraging miscegenation without
extermination in mind. The word caste is of Portuguese origin, and refers to
this co-existence and preservation of different identities for races, not
necessarily with a loose hierarchy. It is thus not correct to apply the word
`caste' to the Hindu varna system, since it gives a false impression of a
Sudroids Seen as Animals
The Sudroid blacks are repeatedly referred to as `animals', & never
treated as humans in the Hindu scriptures.
" Having killed a cat, an
ichneumon, a blue jay, a frog, a dog, an iguana, an owl, or a corw, he shall
perform the penance for the murder of a Sudra."
-- [ Manu IX.132 ]
" 'You may breed cows and dogs
in your house,' wrote Mr. M.C. Raja. 'You may drink the urine of cows and
swallow cowdung to expiate your sins, but you shall not approach an Adi
-- [ Inf ]
" The murder of a Sudra by a
Brahman is equal only to killing a cat or a frog or a cow "
Whereas Brahmans are classed with
gods, Sudras are classed with animals:
[ Stat ] [ Wilk.248 ].
" Elephants, horses, Sudras and
contemptiable Mlecchas, lions, tigers, and boars form the middle dark
The Sudra Black is also not allowed to
participate in any rites of the Aryan Vaishnavite religion : " A Brahman
should never be the guru of a Sudra. 'While the first part of a Brahman's name
should indicate holiness that of a Kshatriya's power and that of a Vashya's
wealth, that of a Sudra 's should indicate contempt. The Veda is never to be
read in the presence of a Sudra, and for him no sacrifice is to be performed.
He has no business with solemn rites." [ Stat ] [ Wilk.247-8 ].
-- [ Manu i.43 ] [ Muir I.41 ]
Later, Vaisyas were degraded to the
status of Sudras : " Vish [ Vaisya ] is food for the kshatriya" [
Sat.Br.18.104.22.168; Vedic Cosmology, Rajiv Verma, New Age International Ltd. New
Delhi, 1996, p.110 ]
To eonforce their domination over the subjugated races, all these and
especially the negroid Sudras, were forcibly kept in illiteracy. This
maintained the Brahmin state.
Sudra Blacks are not allowed to even
read the Vedas, and are punished by having their tongue cut out if they do so.
If they hear the Vedas, they are to have molten tin poured into their ears.
The Vedas are meant to be read only by Aryans :
" A Sudra has no right even to
listen to the Veda. Recitation of or listening to this sacred book is
exclusively a privilege of the Aryan Hindus. There is provision of severe
punishment for a Sudra, in case he dares to enjoy this privilege. If he
"overheard a recitation of the Vedas, molten lac or tin was to be
poured into his mouth; if he repeated recitation of the Vedas, his tongue
should be cut; and if he remembered Vedic hymns, his body was to be torn
That this rule was actually enforced
is proven by the account of Alberuni, who visited India in the 10th century AD
-- [ Tirth ]; cited in [ Stat ]
" The Vaisya and the Sudra are
not allowed to hear it [ the Veda ], much less to pronounce and recite it.
If such a thing can be proved against one of them, the Brahmans drag him
before the magistrate, and he is punished by having his tongue cut off ."
-- [ al-B.i.125 Ch.XII ]
" Every act that is considered
the privelege of the Brahman, such as saying prayers, the reciting of the
Veda, and offering of sacfirices to the fire, is forbidden to him, to such a
degree that when, eg. a Sudra or a Vaisya is proved to have recited the
Veda, he is accused by the Brahmans before the ruler, and the latter will
order his tongue to be cut off . However, the meditation on God [ is
not prohibited ]."
Hence, the caste system did not
decrease in severity right from the Aryan invasion in 1500 BC upto the Islamic
conquest ca. 1000 AD. That implies a 2500 year period during which the
apartheid caste system was in operation - longer than anywhere else in the
-- [ al-B.ii.127 Ch.LXIV ]
Some scholars have claimed that the
laws of Manu were not necessarily followed in practice. This is merely
Brahmanic-Aryan propaganda, since the account of Alberuni quoted above shows
that the law was enforced in all its severity. In addition, the accounts of
countless Greek and Arab travellers prove that the caste system was enforced
during the medieval period, and the account of European travellers, especially
English ones, proves that it was in force in South India till the British
conquest. Thus, an Aryan Nair would shoot a Dravidian at sight. However, the
Islamic invasion relaxed caste systems to a great degree, when the liberal
Quranic law substituted the harsh Vedic laws.
For contesting the claims of the
pretentious fair-skinned Aryans, the black Sudra is to have his tongue cut
off, hot oil poured in his ear, or a nail thrust into his mouth :
- " A once-born man (Sudra)
who insults a twice-born man (Aryan) with gross invective, shall have
his tongue cut out; for he is of low origin."
-- [ Manu VIII.270 ]
- " If he mentions the names
and castes (Jati) of the (twice-born) with contumely, an iron
nail, 10 fingers long, shall be thrust red-hot into his mouth ."
-- [ Manu VIII.271 ]
- " If he arrogantly teaches
Brahmins their duty, the king shall cause hot oil to be poured
into his mouth and into his ears . "
-- [ Manu VIII.272 ]
"Rites are declared to be
prescribed by the Vedas for the three (highest) castes... Next the Sudras,
produced from extinction, are destitute of rites. Hence they are not
entitled to be admitted to the purificatory ceremonies, nor does sacred
science belong to them. Just as the cloud of smoke which rises from the fire
on the friction of the fule, and is dissipated, is of no service in the
sacrficial rite, so too the Shudras wandering over the Earth, are altogether
(Useless for purpose of sacrifice) owing to their birth ,
their mode of life devoid of purity and their want of observances prescribed
in the Veda."
-- [ Muir I. 153 ] [ Hari.11820 ]
" With whatever limb a man of a
low caste does hurt to (a man of the three highest castes) even that limb
shall be cut off ; that is the teaching of Manu.
He who raises his hand or a stick, shall have his hand cut off ; he
who in his anger kicks with his foot, shall have his foot cut off ."
-- [ Manu VIII.279-280 ]
" If a low-caste man who tries
to place himself on the same seat with a man of a high caste, shall be
branded on his hip and is banished, or (the king) shall cause his buttock to
-- [ Manu VIII.281 ]
" If out of arrogance he [ a
Sudra ] spits (on a superior), the king shall cause both his lips to be cut
off; if he urines (on him), the penis; if he breaks wind (against him), the
After Parasurama annihilated the
-- [ Manu VIII.282 ]
" If ha lays fold of the
hair(of a superior), let the king unhesitatingly cut off his hands ,
likewise (if he takes him) by the feet, the breard, the neck or the
-- [ Manu VIII.282 ]
" the Brahmans did not sell
their sacred lore, nor recite the Vedas in the vicinity of Sudras"
Gandhi's Support of Apartheid
-- [ Muir.I.452 ] [ MBh.Adi.2474 ]
Indeed the practice of untouchability continues today with all its horrors,
especially in Aryan Vaishnavite areas [ Pract ]. The great Gandhi, for all the
propaganda surrounding his name, did not abolish untouchability. Ambedkar, the
`Father of the Indian Constitution' and greatest leader of the Black
Untouchables (Dalits and Adivasis), has written about Gandhi's policy of
subjugating the Untouchables,
" Hinduism is a veritable
chamber of horrors. The sanctity and infallibility of the Vedas, Smritis and
Shastras, the iron law of caste, the heartless law of karma and the
senseless law of status by birth are to the Untouchables veritable
instruments of torture which Hinduism has forged against untouchables. These
very instruments which have mutilated; blasted and blighted the lives of the
Untouchables are to be found intact and untarnished in the bosom of Gandhism."
Gandhi was a staunch follower of the
Brahminist caste system :
-- [ Ambed ] [ Gandhi_U ] [ Fame ]
" Supporting the caste system he
[ Gandhi ] said: "I believe that caste has saved Hinduism from
disintegration." He also said, "To destroy the caste system and
adopt the Western European social system means that Hindus must give up the
principle of hereditary occupation, which is the soul of the caste system.
The hereditary principle is an eternal principle. To change it is to create
disorder." [ Faz, p.68 ]
The greatest crime committed by Gandhi
against the Black Race was to deny the Black Untouchables of India separate
electorates and sabotaging the plan to emancipiate Untouchables :
-- [ Gandhi_U ]
" In the Round Table Conference
held in 1932, the then British Government accepted the demand of the Dalits
for separate electorate. The basis of that demand was the fact that the
Dalit are not Hindu but a separate nation. Gandhi started his 'fast unto
death' against that plan and sabotaged it. It was a thunderous blow to the
cause of the emancipation of the Dalit."
Indeed, Gandhi displayed a marked bias
against the Black Untouchables :
-- [ Gandhi_U ]
" In 1933, he established
Harijan (Dalit) Sevak Sangh for the welfare of the Untouchables (Dalits).
But when there was a demand for the representation of the Untouchables on
the Governing Board of the institution, he flatly refused it. He disapproved
appointment of Mr. Agnibhaj, a distinguished personality, as a minister in
the Congress cabinet in the Madhya Pradesh because he was from the Scheduled
He indeed considered the Negroid Dalit
to be of an inferior race. Writing about their supposedly lower level of
intelligence, he wrote,
-- [ Gandhi_U ]
"Majority of Harijans (Dalits)
can no more understand the presentation of Christianity than my cows."
thereby comparing the IQ of Dalits to
-- [ Gandhi_C, p.58 ] [ cited in Gandhi_U ]
Gandhi also never supported the
Black Africans during his stay in Africa. He only stood for the Aryan
" First, he specifically took up
the cause of only Indians in South Africa, never the blacks who formed the
overwhelming majority. In fact, during the heroic rebellion waged by the
Zulus in 1906 (during which the British carried out unparalleled massacres
of the Zulus), he offered his services to the British as the leader of a
stretcher-bearer company. "
By a supreme fate of irony, it is
the Brahmins the Mahatma so supported that eventually killed him !
[ FSB.Ch.3 ]
The Brahman Aryans imposed one of the harshest caste systems of all times [
Brah_S ] [ Caste ]. Regarding the dominion of the Brahman race over all
others, Swami Dharma Theertha has written,
"Probably no other class of
persons in any society ever combined in themselves all these advantages so
exclusively as the Brahmans. It is equally doubtful if any other
aristocratic class has ever exercised their privileges to the detriment of
the common people so unscrupulously and for so long a period as these
Brahman priests." [ Tirth.113 ] He further observes, "No imperial
power ever imposed on a weaker people a more ruthless and soul-destroying
domination than the Brahmans did on the rest of their fellow citizens, and
no race of superior men ever arrogated to themselves such haughty supremacy
and false greatness as they have. " [ Tirth.163-4 ]
-- [ Brah_S ]
The Exterminated &
Subjugated Races : Blacks (`Dasyus' & `Sudras'), Semites (`Panis') and
This is an in-depth
account of the races subjected or exterminated by the Aryan invaders.
Rakshasas are Dravidians
Aryan literature is replete with references to the hated Rakshasas. Rakshasa
is a term of contempt for Dravidians and other black aboriginals. Some Aryan
apologists have claimed that this term means `demon' and does not refer to the
aboriginals. This is entirely unfounded, however, because an overwhelming
amount of evidence indicates that it is an abusive term applied to the native
black populations of India (Dravidian, Kolarian, Kshudraka, etc.) :
Considering this, it is accepted by
many that the Ram-Ravan conflict is between Aryan and Dravidians [ Ban.53 ].
- Rakshasas have black skin, broad
nose, large mouth (ie. proganthism) and thick lips.
- In Ceylon, the term Rakshasa is
applied in Cinghalese chronicles to the aboriginals. The vernacular
applies Rakko or Yakko to them. This is confirmed by Chinese travellers [
Ann. 111 ].
- The kingdom of the Rakshasas was
the southern part of India south of the Vindhya range as mentioned in the
Ramayana. Ravaa's capital was Lanka on the island of Sri Lanka.
- As a consequnece of Rama's
invasion, Lanka is now an Aryan-speaking country (but racially Dravidian).
Moreover, the Indo-Aryan language Sinhalese is related to Eastern
Indo-Aryan languages such as Oriya, a region whence part of Rama's army
- Rahu is another famous Rakshasa.
Another name of his is Melayaja, a term evidently derived from Malla, the
name of a Dravidian tribe [ Opp.18 ], and whence Malbhum and Malayalam.
- Ravan is a title of distinction
with the ancient rulers of Lanka [ Ban.50 ].
- Ravana is referred to as
Rakshasendra [ Ann. 111 ].
The Asuras are also an
aboriginal tribe, since a tribe of the same name is found in Jharkhand.
However, many consider the Asuras to have been the Assyrians. Thus in Indian
tradition people inhabiting the regions west of Iran are referred to as Asuras
[ West.777.n17 ].
The Mongoloids are also mentioned by
the Sanskrit poets. In Sanskrit they are referred to as Yakshas, in Pali as
Yakkos & in Chinese as Yueh-Chih [ 1800,p.45 ]. These yellow races
descended from the Himalayas and occupied much of the Ganges valley. Being
natives of higher regions they considerd themselves to be superior to the
inhabitants of the plains, and assumed the name of daivaputra of the sons of
gods' [ 1800,p.45 ]. They spread over the whole of Bengal, and emigrated
thence by sea to southern Indian and Ceylon.
The Gandharvas are the Gandharans :
Considering this, it is accepted by
most that the Gandharvas were a hill tribe, considered handsome by the people
of the plains, but were later converted into divine mythical beings [
The Sudras (Sudrans) were
considered a different race from the Aryas (Aryans):
- Gandharva and Gandhara are
- When Bharata destroyed the
Gandharvas, he built the capital cities of Taxila and Pushkalavat [
Alld.920 ]. Taxila was the capital of Gandhara during historical times.
- The Ganharans are a hill tribe,
which fits the mountain region of modern Afghanistan.
- The Gandharvans are described by
Aryans as good-looking, which in Aryan eyes today, fits the people of the
Gandhara region, ie. fair skin, black hair etc.
" He lauded with one. Living
beings were formed: Prajapati was ruler ... He lauded with nineteen: the
Sudra and the Arya were created : day and night were the rulers."
-- [ Muir.I.18 ] [ Vajasaneya Samhita XIV.28 ff ] = [ Tait.Sam. IV.3.10.1 ]
"The Brahman caste is sprung
from the gods; the Sudra from the Asuras"
Sans.: " Daivyo vai varno brahmanah
asuryyo sudrah "
-- [ Tait.Brah.I.2.6.7 ][ Muir.I.21 ]
" Let him at his will milk out
with a golden dish. But let not a Sudra milk it out. For this Sudra has
sprung from non-existence .
The Sudras were always vilified as a
black race: After Prajapati (ie. Brahma) created the beings,
They say that that which a Shudra milks out is no oblation. Let not a Sudra
milk out the Agnihotra. For they do not purify that. "
-- [ Tait.Brah.III.2.3.9 ] [ Muir I.21 ]
" The colour (Varna ) of the
Brahmans was white, that of the Kshtriyas red, that of the Vaisyas yellow,
and that of the Shudras black"
-- [ MBh.Santi.6930 ff ][ Muir.I.140 ]
" The Brahman is his mouth; he
is the Kshattriya-armed, that great One, Vaisya-thighed, and has the black
caste abiding in his feet." " Brahmananam kshattra-bhujo mahatma
-- [ Muir.I.156 ] [ Bhg.Pur.II.1.37 ]
"Others he [ Brahma ] created
from his feet, whose chief characterisitic was drakness."
-- [ Muir 62 ] [ Vis.Pur. I.6.5 ]
" these 7 varshas have a system
of four castes. The caste which dwell there are severally the Kapilas,
Arunas, Pitas, and Krishnas (or, the Tawny, the Purple, the Yellow and the
Black). These, the Brahmans, Kshattryias, the Vaisya an Sudras, worship woth
excellent sacrifices Vishnu ... in the form of Vayu... "
The nagas are named as such perhaps
because of their worship of the serpent - cf the serpent - god of Manipur
conquered by the son of Arjuna [ Ram.wh 318 ] Indra killed the `demon' Puloman
to avoid the curse after having violated his daughter Shaci [ Opp.18 ]. `Pulastya'
is evidently linguistically related to `Puloman'.
-- [ Muir I.499 ] [ Vis.Pur.II.4.12 ]
Indra is known as `Balanashena or
Balarati the enmey and destroyer of Bala. [ Opp.18 ]
Ravana is esteemed by the Jains [
Krishna is referred to as Mallari,
the enemy and destroyer of the Asura Malla.
Indra is referreed ot as Valadvish
or Valanashana, destroyer of the demon Vala, the brother of Vrtra, and was
also known as `Balanashena or Balarati, the enemy and destroyer of the demon
Bala. [ Opp.15 ]. That this was no demeon but an aboriginal is proven by the
city Mahabalipuram, a city built by Bali.
Vishnu is referred to as
Balidhvamsin, since he defeated the giant king Bali in the shape of the dwarf
Vamana. [ Opp.15 ]
Rama cowardly murdered the mighty
monkey-king Bali or Vali, brother of Sugriva by treachorously shooting him
from behind a tree, while enticing them to both fight, and hence is proudly
called `Balihantr'. Bali is cognate to the terms Bhillas, Bhils, Bhallas,
Vellallas, Pulindas and Pulanyar, Valhanar, Velamas. [ Opp.15 ]
Bhar [ Ptol.VII.2.20 ] is mentioned
as an aboriginal race `Barrhai'. Bar then led to Barbari is Sanskrit or
Varvari. The Bhars inhabited Bundelkhand and were its former rulers. [ Opp.37
The Buddhist term `Vihara' led to
the name `Bihar' [ Opp.41, although he seems doubtful of this etymology ]
" Six colours of living beings
are of principal importance, black, dusky, and blue which lies in betwen
them; then the red is more tolerable, yellow is happiness, and white is
extremem happiness. WHite is perfect, being exempted from stain, sorrow and
exhaustion; (possessed) of it a being going through various births arrives
at perfection in a thousand forms.
The Marathi word dalit, was chosen
by the group itself and it means literally "ground," or "broken
or reduced to pieces" [ Womn ].
... Thus destination is caused by colour, and the colour is caused by time
The destination of the black colour is bad. When it has produced its
results, it clings to hell."
-- [ Muir I.151 ] [ M.Bh.Sant.10058-60 ]
Myths of Caste Origin based on
Unfortunately some Vedist apologists
refuse to believe that caste is racial in origin. We add some remarks below:
" Explain to me the means -
whther it be intense austere-favour or ceremonies, or Vedic learning -
whereby a Kshatriya, a Vaisya or a Shudra, if he so desire it, can attain to
the state of Brahman. Bhishma replies ,
Matanga was the offspring of a Brahman
woman, who when intoxicated, received the embraces of a low-born barber, and
consequently he was no brahmin but a Candalla. He was however, brought up as a
Brahman, but discovered it later. Whence he entered upon austerities, desiring
Brahmanhood from hte gods:
The state of a Brahman is hard to be acquired by men of hte other three
classes, the Kshattriyas etc., for this Brahmanhood is hte highest rank
among all living creatures. It is only after pasing through numerous
wombs, and being born again and again, that such a man, in some revolution
of being, becomes a Brahaman.' -- [ M.Bh.Anu.1869-70 ] [ Muir.I.441
" He asks for Brahmanhood; but
Indra tells him he must perish if he continues to make that request, as hte
high position he seeks cannot be obtained by one born as a Chandalla ."
After austerties of a thousand years,
Indra stil refused to give him the boon and only gave him the abilility to fly
like a bird, to change his shape at will and of beign honoured and renowned.
-- [ MBh.Anu.1895 ] [ Muir.I.441 ]
It is true that conversion from one
caste to the other is allowed, but it has to be added that this takes several
thousand rebirths. Thus, Indra explains to Matanga that :
- A Chandella can become a Sudra
only after 1000 births.
- A Sudra can become a Vaisya only
after 30 times that period
- A Vaisya can become a Rajanya
after 60 times the previous length.
- A Rajanya can become a Brahman
after 60 times the previous duration.
-- [ MBh.Anu.1901 ff ][ Muir.I.441 ]
Mahabharata Wars - Allies
and Casualty Estimates
By the time of the
Mahabharata conflict, the Aryans had settled around the region of modern
Delhi. The Mahabharata War was a conflict between the pure Aryans and the
non-Aryans and mixed races. The latter, represented by the Kauravas, supported
a multi-racial society, while the former, the Pandavas, insisted on racial
Racial Composition of the Armies
Ethnic Group Race
KAURAVA Allies Non-Aryans & Mixed-Races
Trigarttas [ Mah.raj 240ff ] Scythic Tyri Getae
Mlechchha [ Mah.raj 243 Black Aboriginals
cf. their king Anga ]
Sindhu [ Mah.raj 251 ff, 256 ff ] Semites
PANDAVA Allies Pure Aryans
Panchala [ Mah.raj 106, 297 ] Aryans
Chedi [ Mah.raj 106 ] Aryans
Kekaya [ Mah.raj 106 ] Aryans
Vrishni [ Mah.raj 106 ] Aryans
Matsya [ Mah.raj 330 ] Aryans
Magadha [ Mah.raj 330 ] Non-Vedic Aryans
Bahlika [ Mah.raj 330 ]
Dasharna [ Mah.raj 330 ]
The Kauravas were of mixed race.
Thus, Dhritarasthra's son-in-law was Jayadratha, king of the Sindhus [ Mah.raj
251 ]. Some of the Yadavas supported the Pandavas, others opposed [ Mah.raj
323 ]. The victory of the Aryans over the non-Aryans in this war enabled them
to continue their migration southwards and eastwards.
The Pandavas raised 7 armies as
opposed to the Kauravas' 11. On the 14th day of the battle Arjun annihilated 5
of the 11 armies ( `akshoumin' ) amassed by the Kauravas. Attacking the
Pandavas, Drona destroyed 1 army, Karna 2, and Bhishma 1. Yudhishitra told
Dhritarasthra that the number of great warrriors slain numbered more than 94
crores (ie. 940 million). Some authorities estimate that 1.27 askhoumin = 1
billion (10^9), but this is an exaggeration. A more reasonable estimate is
that most of the 18 armies total perished, 7 out of the 18 being the Aryan
Pandava armies. Al-Beruni has estimated that the 18 akshouhinis add up to a
total of 8,267,094 humans [ al-B.i.408 ]. Thus, the Kurukshetra Battle of the
Mahabharat War alone accounted for 8.3 million casualties. Achaemenid and
later Mauryan armies numbered several hundred thousand, and so a reasonable
estimate of the number of combatants in one army is 100,000. The total number
of casualties would then be 1.8 million. This is a reconciation between the
billions of poets' fancies and the hundreds of certain historians, who wish to
downplay this as the clash between rivel cow-herders. The latter view is
untenable, witness the descriptions of battlefields.
The Ramayana is later than the
During Hanuman's invasion of Lanka,
which perceded that of Rama, he eradicated an army of Ravana. The total number
of casualties was 80,000, seven Rakshasa generals, 5 commanders and Aksha. [
Ram.wh 340 ]
- Location: Rama's capital is
Ayodhya in Koshala, while Indra's is in Panchala
- Weapons are mentioned in the
Ramayana that are not mentioned in the Mahabharata. Hence technology
developed in the meantime.
Archaeological Evidence for
Vedic Aryan Invasions (1500 BC - 1000 BC)
Here is some of the
archaeological evidence of Aryan invasions.
Thick ash layers occur in the upper
strata of many Indus cities. At Nal the last phase of the Zhob-ware was burnt
down so much so that the mound is known as the Sohr Damb, or the Red Mound,
from the reddening due to fire. At Dabar Kot the upper 6 feet of the tell show
4 thick ash layers that indicate repeated destruction by conflagration and the
RG V encrusted ware is associated with the last settlements of Harappa [
At the Rana Ghundai mound everywhere overlying the foundation level of the RG
III c phase there are pockets of ash. Above the RG III c phase the pottery is
markedly different from the preceding type, the RG IV phase pottery being
painted with coarse bands. RG IV was again destroyed by fire, and the RG V
phase is marked by another change in pottery. The RG V pottery is unpainted
and contains patterns in relief [ Pig.214 ].
At Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and
Chanhu-daro, skeletons/fragments of skeletons indicate violent massacres in
the final stages of the cities' history. Huddled skeletons of persons murdered
in the streets indicate that the mass dyings were not due to poisonings etc.
but were violent.
-- [ Pig.145 ]
Also, Mallaja denotes Vellaja, black
pepper. [ Opp.18 ]
Buddha is described as being of the Sakya tribe, which has given rise to the
theory that he was a Scythian [ Opp.20 ] However, the location of his home in
Nepal, is itself indicative of a Mongol origin.
In Telugu `Malavadu' = Pariah and the 2 terms are equivalent [ Opp.21 ] This
is related to the term `Malayalam' and Malabar, which are synonymous with
It is to be noted that Mallarasthra = kingdom of Malas or aboriginalas and
Mallas; this later became Maharasthra and this is thus an alternative
derivation of Maharashta, sometimes derived from `Great Kingdom'. In Marathi
Mallara is applied to Pariahs. [ Opp.21-22 ]
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