You are absolutely correct. Most Caucasians have a strange idea of superiority (even if we struggle against it). And we got to ask ourselves why and when this started.
Let's start with the Why?
The earliest civilisations that we do know of had influences from different 'races'. the Mongoloid races of china developed their own Yellow River civilisation, the Caucasoids developed the Sumerian and Harappan civilisation and the Negroids along with the Caucasoids developed the Egyptian (Arguably the most splendid) civilisation.
It didn't really matter too much which race you were back then. Negroids were made citizens of Rome like others, as long as they followed the laws of Rome.
Even Europeans respected the idea of a black Emperor in Ethiopia (Prester John) who would help them against the Muslims.
Race relations took a down turn during the Protestant reformation when the idea came about that man was pre-destined to be saved. This idea was perverted along with the slave trade to enslave only blacks. By the 1700s, blacks were regarded as only useful as slaves. Slavery in other races was commonplace until the 1700s after that it was exclusively black. This Euro-ARabian idea then spread to the rest of Eurasia and the prevailing notion was to look down on the black man.
so the When can be put in the years 1600 to 1700. This is comparatively recent, but it ended even more recently in the 1960s. I think it will take another 2 to 3 generations before people return to being color blind.