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About the egyptains
Posted By: Sopdet
Date: 15, August 02, at 12:01 a.m.
MYTH#1 Egyptians were white
This is the longest myth ever in existence, which is pedaled as true scholarship and truth. Yet it is an outright myth, deliberately created from 1830 onwards, to explain away Egyptian civilization. During the 1800's there was all kinds of pseudo-sciences floating around about the genetical and inherent inferiority of peoples of African descent, and also a belief blacks are to be colonized because they are uncivilized and savage by nature. This was created to justify colonialism and also denying blacks equal rights in America. In order to moralize their mistreatment of blacks, scientific racism was created. And a part of this was in denying blacks had ever had a civilization. Since Egypt was a very impressive and marvelous civilization, and much of the heritage of the western world (such as writing and the calendar) came from ancient Egypt, it became necessary to whiten Egypt.
But the truth is, the ancient Egyptians were not white. Neither were they pure black. The ancient Egyptians were a mixed-race people, especially in Upper Egypt, where Egyptian civilization began. While the earliest inhabitants, the Tasians, are believed to have been of Cro-Magnoid stock, the predynastic Badarian period which starts at 5500 B.C. in Upper Egypt, was quite Negroid. Carleton S. Coon calls the predynastic Egyptian population of Upper Egypt during the Badarian period "Mediterrenean" and denies any black admixture, on account of their thick and wavy hair. But thin and wavy hair is Caucasion hair. Wavy hair that is thick in texture is typical of peoples with African ancestry. The hair-type Coon described can be found amongst many modern-day Nubians, as well as some Northern Ethiopians, and a number of persons of mixed ancestry in Latin America, the Caribbean, and even in the United States. And besides, he described the crania of the Badarian skulls he studied as being dolichocephalic, with short faces, blurred margin (broad noses), and prognathisms. These are distinctly Negroid traits, and are undeniable evidence of black admixture. As for the hair of predynastic Upper Egyptian of the Badarian period, recent studies of their hair, show them to be semi-frizzy, like Mulattoes and many Northeast Africans. [Keita, S.O.Y. Studies and "Comments on Ancient Egyptian Biological Relationships," History of Africa 20, p.140] Of the Badarian predynastic Egyptian population, other scholars do not hesitate to call the characteristics of the crania as Negroid and as being due to African ancestry. Dr. Childe V. Gordon, a British anthropologist, spoke of the Negroid traits in Badarian crania. Other Egyptologists and anthropologists have noted the same. Dr. Emile Massourlard, a French Egyptologist, published a work in 1949 called[ "Prehistoire et Protohistoire d'Egypt"[ in which he cites various studies on predynastic and dynastic Egyptian culture. On the Badarians, he quotes a study by Miss Stoessiger. Of her, he states:
"Badarian skulls differ very little from other less ancient predynastic skulls; they are just a bit more prognathous. Next to these, they most resemble primitive Indian skulls: Dravidians and Veddas. They also present a few affinities with Negroes, due no doubt to a very ancient admixture of Negro blood." [p. 394]
Prognathisms is a distinctly Negroid trait. What Massoulard's passage leaves out, is that Miss Stoessiger found the Badarian crania to all possess blurred margin (broad nasal index), just as Coon noted. Dr. S.O.Y. Keita, a well respected and noteable anthropologist did a cranial analysis of his own on various cranias, in his work "Studies of Ancient Crania From Northern Africa." His samples included predynastic Badari, predynastic early Naqqada, Kerma (Bronze Age Nubia), 1st Dynasty royal remains at Abydos, Teita East Africa, Gaboon Central-West Africa, and Romano-Britain. Through his experiments he was able to gain several observations. He found that the Badari predynastic Egyptian crania occupied, "a position closest to the Teita, Gaboon, Nubian, and Nagada series." [p. 40]
This is startling in the fact that he reports, "the Nagada and Kerma series are so similar that they were barely distinguishable in the territorial maps." [[p. 40] [ He reports that these series, Nagada and Kerma, "subsume the first dynasty series from Abydos." [p. 40] In other [words, the 1st Dynasty royal remains at Abydos, were similar to the Badarian and early Naqqadan series. A factor to be discussed later. But getting back to Badar predynastic Egyptian crania, Keita continues:
"The Badarian crania have a modal metric phenotype that is clearly 'southern'; most classify into the Kerma (Nubian), Gaboon, and Kenyan groups NO Badarian cranium in any analysis classified into the EUROPEAN SERIESs..." [p. 40]
[Emphasis mine] Especially notable is the fact absolutely none of the predynastic Badari crania were Caucasoid. Other anthropologists and Egyptologists whom have noted predynastic Badari and early Naqqada crania possessing "alveolar prognathisms" (protruding upper teeth case; a condition very common amongst African populations, but very rare amongst Europeans and Western Asians) and "blurred margin," as well as other distinctly Negroid affinities, include Morant (whom shall be discussed shortly), Anderson (1968), Stouhal (1971), and Chamla (1990).
It is during the Badari predynastic period which begins at 5000 B.C., that the Egyptians begin farming and domesticating animals, and cease hunting and gathering. This period is noted by distinctive pottery and the use of copper. Here we see, the basic elements which were to become Egyptian civilization being created by a population whom posses distinctive Negroid affinities.
But on to late Naqqada predynastic Egyptian. These crania have been found to more heterogenous in nature. But still, all posses Negroid affinities. This is noted by Dr. Emile Massoulard, whom cites a Miss Fawcett, whom studied a number of Naqqada crania, and found them all to posses a combination of Negroid and Europoid affinities. Of this Massoulard states:
"Miss Fawcett believes the Naqada crania to be SUFFICIANTLY HOMOGENOUS to justify speaking of a Naqada RACE. By height of the skull, the auricular height, the height and width of the face, the height of the nose, the ceohalic and facial indexes, this race PRESENTS AFFINITIES WITH NEGROES. By the nasal width, the height of the orbit, the length of the palate, and the nasal index, it presents affinities with Germans...." [Prehistoire et Protohistoire d'Egypt, p. 402-403]
[Emphasis mine] We can see here that the Naqqada series all possessed Negroid affinities. Even Loring C. Brace, whom The Ancient Egyptians weren't Black Webpage uses as their "proof" Egyptians were white, has noted that predynastic Upper Egyptian crania of the late Naqqada period to "also show tendencies towards neighbouring African groups." [Brace et al, 36:1-31] and even Brace's evaluation of late Naqqada crania is not entirely sound.
In 1966 Michael Crichton, a brilliant pre-med student, did a thesis on the late Naqqada period crania of Upper Egypt. This is the same Michael Crichton, by the way, whom would later go on to write the book Jurassic Park! He studied crania from the exact same cemetery Brace got his samples from. But unlike Brace, rather than finding them strongly Europoid with only minor Northeast African tendencies, Crichton found the crania to posses distinctly Negroid characteristics and he found them to cluster near Africans than Europeans. [Crichton, Michael. "A Multiple Discriminate Analysis of Egyptian and African Negro Crania," Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archeology and Ethnology 57:45-67] The difference between Crichton and Brace, lay in the sameples they chose as the "standard" for Africans. Brace made all European crania equally European, while hypocritically not making all African crania equally African. He took samples from Benin, Tanzania, and Gabon (all countries where people tend to resemble the "True Negro"), and presented them as "genuine African", while assuming Northeast Africans and East Africans weren't equally African. Thus, the African sample split into two groups. True Negroes whom he labelled "Sub-Saharan" and Northeast Africans; namely Somalians, Bronze Age Nubians, and Christian Nubians. Thus his predynastic Upper Egyptian sample hovered between the Northeast African sample and the European one. Crichton on the other hand, unlike Brace, assumed Northeast Africans and East Africans to be as equally genuinely African as the True Negro. He used the Teita people of Kenya (a Nilotic peoples) as the particular cluster to compare his Naqqada crania with. He found the Naqqada sample to cluster very close to the Teita sample, and to show very strong affinities with them. Thus, Crichton found a definite strong Negroid character to the exact same Naqqada crania, Brace found very little in. Thus, we see they were definitely Negroid.
Nonetheless it is during the early part of this period (4250 B.C.) that the Egyptians begin using the 365-day Solar Calendar. The same solar calendar which is the direct ancestor of the very calendar used by us today. And during the later Naqqada period, we see Egyptian Hierogliphics in use. The Osirin religion, the Egyptian priesthood, and the institution of Pharaoh, all had their roots in predynastic Naqqada Upper Egypt. Mind you, the peoples of predynastic Lower Egypt were whites of Mediterranean and Proto-Nordic stock, having affinities with [white]Libyans to the northwest of Egypt. These were pastoralist tribes. The peoples of Upper Egypt during the predynastic period were a different stock. This is noted by G.M Morant, whom did a comprehensive study on Dynastic and Predynastic Egyptian crania. As cited by John R. Baker (whom is a very right wing anthropologist with racist leanings), in the north he [Morant] found a predominant "Mediterranean" element, in the south he discovered the same thing. Only the population sample from Upper Egypt had black admixture to varying degrees. Thus confirming that the peoples of Upper Egypt were distinctly Negroid. He also finds out that the further we get into the Dynastic period, the less distinctive the crania from Lower and Upper Egypt are, until they evidently fused together. [Baker, John R. Race, p. 519] And lastly, Sir Grafton Elliot Smith, who was a professor of Anatomy at Cairo's Egyptian Museum in the early 1900's, studied many bodies and skeletons of predynastic and Dynastic Egyptians. His findings revealed that these peoples had an "effeminate and frail build, poorly developed eyebrows, small broad noses and slight prognathism." That to anyone this sounds like typical Negroid characteristics.
As for the 1st dynasty, it is interesting to note that Dr. S.O.Y. Keita who studied their remains found a definite Sudanic cast of features among them. Of this Keita states:
"The predominant craniometric pattern in the Abydos royal tombs is 'southern' (tropical African variant), and this is consistent with what would be expected based on the literature and other results." [Studies of Ancient Crania From Northern African, p. 40]
The first dynasty was founded by Narmer-Menes, who was an Upper Egyptian king. Being that the predynastic population of Upper Egypt was distinctly Negroid in affinities, it makes sense that Narmer himself, being an Upper Egyptian, would also be Negroid. This sketch of Narmer from his Palate, during his victory march, in which he wears the Crown of Lower Egypt, shows distinctive Negroid characteristics. The nose is wide and broad, and the lips are thick and everted. [Courtesy of Bellephorn Books] The sketch is an actual sketch of the reverse side of the Palate. The side we rarely get shown in books. A bust of an unidentified first dynasty king found at Abydos also confirms the Negroid nature of the first dynasty. The features of the bust are distinctly Negroid, assuring us the kings of this dynasty were neither are Semitic, Aryan, or Mediterranean, but unquestionably of African descent. Contrary to Arthur Kemp's claims, the bust actually does date back to the first dynasty period. There are no inscriptions on it at all. It has been seen by many to be Narmer himself, based on the fact it was found at a first dynasty royal tomb at Abydos, and it dates back to the first dynasty period. Arthur Kemp appearantly did not do his research on this one, when he stated it comes from the 25th dynasty (Ethiopian) period. We nonetheless see the First dynasty was an African one. The same can be said about second dynasty Pharaoh Bae Neter as well, as this image of a Pharaoh from this period, is distinctively Negroid. Also this bas-relief portriate of Pharaoh Zoser of the Third Dynasty also shows the Third Dynasty to have been Africoid. Zoser was the second king of the third dynasty, and had succeeded his older brother. And also, studies of Third Dynasty royal remains, show them too, to mostly posses Tropical African tendencies. [Keita, 1993] Thus, the Third Dynasty was African from its start!
The 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th, dynasties are more of a mystery. In some images, members appear Africoid, while in others more Europoid. They were probably of mixed origin, as were most of the Egyptian populace. But what is for certain, based on cranial analysis and their images, is they were Sudanic in ancestry. Keith W. Crawford, citing Drake and Bernal, states that the rulers of the Middle Kingdom [Dynasties 11 and 12] ; "Broad African features originated in Upper Egypt." [The Racial Identity of Ancient Egyptian Populations Based on the Analysis of Physical Remains, p. 65-66]
"These African traits are the ones usually ascribed to 'true Negroes.'" He goes on to cite the following quote of Robins and Schute's evaluation of Middle Kingdom Egyptians:
"Robins (1983) has recently analyzed Warren's data on predynastic bones and has measured photographs and X-rays of some dynastic skeletons from the Middle Kingdom. She has shown that, for males at least, plausible estimates of stature that are reasonably consistent when different long bones are used only result from negro equations, and that the most satisfactory equations are those of Trotter and Glesser (1958)." [p. 96]
This shows dynasties 11 and 12 were unquestionably Sudanic. The same has also been found of the late 17th dynasty, which was found to have distinctive maxillary or alveolar prognathisms, prognathisms, dolichochocephaly, short faces, and other Negroid ¡Øsouthern¡× affinities. And especially of Seqenenre Tao, last pharaoh of the 17th dynasty, and the father of Queen Amhose-Nefertari, first queen of the 18th dynasty, this was found. His pronounced and distinctive southern affinities have been noted by numerous experts. Professors Harris and Weeks, in their work "X-Raying the Pharaohs" stated this of Seqenenre Tao:
"His entire facial complex, in fact, is so different from other pharaohs (it is closest in fact to his son Ahmose) that he could be fitted more easily into the series of Nubian and Old Kingdom Giza skulls than into that of later Egyptian kings. Various scholars in the past have proposed a Nubian- that is, non-Egyptian-origin for Sequenre and his family, and his facial features suggest that this might indeed be true."
Please keep in mind through his son Amhose and his daughter Amhose-Nefertari, 18th dynasty kings and queens Amenhotep I, Queen Meryatamon, Queen Hatshepsut, Thutmose II, Thutmose III, Thutmose IV, Amenhotep II, Amenhotep III, Akhenaton, Queen Nefertiti, and Tutankhamen, can all trace their bloodlines back to Seqenenre Tao. The 18th dynasty was virtually a continuation of the 17th one. And upon the 18th dynasty royals, to demonstrate this even further, let's examine the works of Professors Harris and Wente on this. In 1980 Professors James Harris and Edward Wente wrote a book called "X-Ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies." In this book they examined and x-rayed various royal mummies stored at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The Dynasties in question were 17, 18, 19, 20, and 21. The purpose of this study, was by determining the shapes of the crania, the teeth, and length and width of the face, to deterimine how traits were passed down through the various royal members of each dynasty, and to deterimine blood relations based on those traits.
What Harris and Wente found, was that the kings and queens of the late 17th and the 18th dynasties were mostly prognathous, with maxillary prognathisms, doliochocephaly, and other traits. This is also true of the 20th and 21st dynasties. we shall be dealing with the 18th dynasty. Harris and Wente, by the way, were white Americans and not black Afrocentrics. Their interest was in familial relations through traits, not racial characteristics! And they did their studies on actual mummies. The 18th Dynasty was the very Egyptian dynasty which extended Egypt's borders into Asia and the Sudan, creating a vast empire. They also are well known for their great monument and public works buildings. Pharaoh Amenhotep III, who's children Akhenaton and Nefertiti show strong Negroid admixture in their features, built a lake for his wife Neferiti.They also built vast stretches of land, and were the first dynasty to utilize the horse, and make use of carriages. This was the strongest Egyptian dynasty ever. Even stronger than the 19th one, and greater builders. Yet this dynasty was undeniably black, as shall be irrifutably demonstrated Before we start, let's look at Negroid and Caucasoid traits. WM Krogman (The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine) listed traits and features associated distinctly with the Negroid and Caucasion races. I shall list them below!
Africoid: Rounded, projecting glabella; sagittal plateau; rounded forehead, prognathism; rounded occiput.
Caucasoid: Depressed glabella; rounded or arched sagittal contour; steep forehead; orthognathism; variable occiput. And according to, S Rhine ("Non-metric skull racing"):
Africoid: Slight depression of nasion; vertical zygomatic arches; prognathism; receding, vertical chin; straight mandibular edge.
Caucasoid: Depression of nasion; retreating zygomatic arches; orthognathism; prominent, bilobate chin; wavy mandibular edge.
Also, RA Drummond ("A determination of cephalometric norms for the Negro race"); TL Alexander and HP Hitchcock ("Cephalometric standards for American Negro children"); RJ Fonseca, WD Klein ("A cephalometric evaluation of American Negro women"); CJ Kowalski, CE Nasjlet and GF Walker (Differential diagnosis of adult make black and white populations); and A Jacobson ("The craniofacial skeletal pattern of the South African Negro"). Persons of African descent are distinguished by steep mandibular plane; sharp, vertical chin; protrusion of the incisors; prognathism; greater lower facial height but with less mid-facial height; upper mouth is more projecting than lower mouth (higher ANB angle). Y'edyank and Iscan ("Craniofacial Growth and Evolution"). Mesolithic Nubians had low, sloping foreheads and robust features evolving into a globular cranium with high vault. The prominence of the orbital region was reduced by the Christian era and the occipital bun much less prominent. Flattening of the lambdoid and sagittal regions also became less pronounced. (Forensic analysis of the skull : craniofacial analysis, reconstruction, and identification. [editors Mehmet Yasar Iscan and Richard P. Helmer]. (New York, N.Y.: Wiley-Liss, 1993)
Keep all of the above in mind when we examine and look at the 18th dynasty royals. Now let's look at some Caucasoid and Negroid crania. The first picture, is a Nordic Caucasion crania.
Nordic skullThe second is a Mediterrenic Caucasioon crania.
The third, is an Alpine Caucasion crania. Alpine skull
And the final, is a compter-generated x-ray scan of 19th Dynasty Pharaoh, Seti I. [Harris and Wente. X-Ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies, 1980] Pharaoh Seti I
Note the Nordic is dolichocephalic with a very and narrow and long face face. The Mediterranean crania, though dolichocephalic, is of a medium-long lenth. And for your pleasure, I added a computer-generated x-ray scan of Seti I's crania. Note he is dolichocephalic, orthognathous, with a long and narrow face. He is of the Nordic type. And the Alpine is brachycephalic with a medium long and broad face. All four are orgnathous (non-protruding chin) as opposed to prognathous (protruding chin).
Next are two Negroid crania. The first is the skull of Mesolithic Sudanese man. Note it is prognathous (chin protruding, has a receding chin, is dolichocephalic, with a short face). Next is a, x-ray of a Mesolithic Sudanese woman. Note she is slightly dolichocephalic, has a short face, and slight prognathisms. Skull of a Sudanese Mesolithic man.
A Mesolithic Sudanese man
X-ray of a Sudanese Mesolithic woman.
A Mesolithic Sudanese woman
Now that you have seen Caucasoid and Negroid crania, and have all the traits found in Caucasions and Africans, now time to look at the 18th Dynasty royalty. First is Amhose-Nefertari. Note in her x-ray scan, she has pronounced prognathisms, strong maxillary prognathisms, dolichocephaly, a broad and short face, strongly proclined incisors, rounded forehead, sagittal flattening, rounded occiput, steep mandible with squat ramus, receding chin, and somewhat forward zygomatic arches. All features found distinctly in Africans! According to Professor Leo Hansberry, who noted the features found in her mummy, she had healthy teeth, a broad nose, wide mouth, full-lips, and maxillary prognathisms. [Africa's Glorious Past, p. 37] And according to Harris and Weeks in their "X-Raying the Pharaohs", her hair was platted, like that of many modern Nubian populations. She was distinctly Negroid. Please note, Amenhotep I, Queen Meryatamon, Thutmose II, Queen Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV, Amenhotep III, Akhenaton, Queen Nefertiti, and Tutankhamen, all trace their bloodlines back to her! Thus, they undeniably have black ancestry! No pseudo-evidence you present can erase the black blood in their veins from Amhose-Nefertari. Their ancestry is NOT up for debates. This is an established FACT! [Harris and Wente. X-Ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies, 1980]
A computer-generated x-ray scan of Pharaoh Amenhotep I. His mother was Amhose-Nefertari. Note his prognathisms, rounded occiput and forehead, sagittal plateau, slightly forward zygomatic arch, moderately inclined mandible, and maxillary prognathisms. [Harris and Wente. X-Ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies, 1980]
Pharaoh Amenhotep I
This is a computer x-ray scan of Queen Meryetamon. She was the sister and wife, of Amenhotep I. Note her prognathisms, maxillary prognathisms, slightly forward zygomatic arches, moderately inclined mandible, and sitting ramus. [Harris and Wente. X-Ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies, 1980]
Queen Meryatamon A computer-generated x-ray scan of Thutmose I. He is the father of both Queen Hatshepsut and Pharaoh Thutmose II, and grandfather of Thutmose III. Note his globalar skull with high vault, pronounced prognathisms, maxillary prognathisms, vertically zigomatic arches, angled mandible, and squating ramus. His mummy shows him as having a broad nose, wide nostrils, full-lips, and prognathisms. [Harris and Wente. X-Ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies, 1980] Pharaoh Thutmose I
An x-ray of Pharaoh Thutmose II. Thutmose II is the father of Thutmose III, and a descendant of Queen Amhose-Nefertari. Note rounded glabella and forhead, high vault with sagittal plateau, rounded occiput, vertical zygomatic arches, globular cranium shape (common amongst modern Nubians), vertical chin, highly angular mandible, prognathisms, and maxillary prognathisms. Compare to the x-ray of the Mesolithic Sudanese woman above. The Pharaoh has more pronounced prognathisms than her! [Harris and Wente. X-Ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies, 1980]
Pharaoh Thutmose II
Also compare his X-ray to the x-ray of the Mesolithic Sudanese woman above. The Pharaoh has more pronounced prognathisms than her!
And lastly, A computer-generated x-ray scan of Thuya, the mother of Queen Tiye. Not her Thutmose II is the father of Thutmose III, and a descendant of Queen Amhose-Nefertari. Note rounded glabella and forhead, high vault with sagittal plateau, rounded occiput, vertical zygomatic arches, globular cranium shape (common amongst modern Nubians), vertical chin, highly angular mandible, prognathisms, and maxillary prognathisms. Although she has reddish wavy hair, her crania shows clear signs of black admixture. Peoples of mixed African descent cometimes have red hair. This can be especially noted amongst many some African-Americans, like Malcom X for instance. Thuya had a wide mouth, which is a trait distinctive of Africans. Egyptologists have noted Queen Tiye's mummy shows strong resemblences to Thuya. Tiye's bust shows Negroid features, which explains her strong resemblence to her mother. Many specialists have noted how Tiye's father Yuya, who looks completely Caucasion, is atypical of Egyptians. [Harris and Wente. X-Ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies, 1980] Lady Thuya
We can clearly see from this that the 18th Dynasty was a Mulatto dynasty. It is funny that the 19th dynasty, which proceeds the 18th dynasty, is heavily relied upon by Eurocentric scholars as their "proof" for ancient Egyptians being white. The very dynasty who's features and characteristics are atypical of the Egyptian populace. The 19th dynasty (unlike the other dynasties before it) were strong devotees of Seth, an Egyptian deity-demon believed to have red hair and to be a personification of all that is evil. Seth was widely worshipped by the Libyans whom commonly had red hairs and were whites. The 19th dynasty Pharaohs were tall, red-haired, and very pale-skinned, all characteristics atypical of most dynastic Egyptians. Considering that Ramses I, the founder of that dynasty, started off his career as a common soldier in the Egyptian army, and rose to the through the ranks up to general, and later to Pharaoh; it is no doubt Ramses was probably of Libyan origin. The Egyptian army towards the end of the 18th dynasty was predominantly foreign; Nubian and Libyan; and Egyptians mostly served as officers and generals in the army. So considering the 19th dynasty's very strong devotion to Seth, their very tall Nordic appearance, and Ramses' very obscured origins, it is more than likely they were Libyans by descent.
Speaking of mummies, it is very interesting to read reports of Egyptian mummies having Caucasian hair and features. Especially considering that studies on Egyptian mummies come from very limited and hardly random, samples in museums. The majority of over all mummies held in these museums are neither opened to the public, nor made available for scientific scrutiny. The samples studied by these "scientists" which claim Egyptian hair, teeth, and features, are Caucasian, come from a very small and limited sample. The journalist reports also fail to identify the mummies as Lower Egyptian or Upper Egyptian. As countless studies on Upper Egyptians show, they had black admixture. Studies on crania from Old Kingdom Giza tombs reveal the same thing. But what is interesting to note is that Jacques Joseph Chompollion-Figaec, the elder brother of Jean Francoid Chompollion (Chompollion the Younger), the very man who deciphered the Rosetta Stone, cites a study on a very large number of Egyptian mummies. Curiously the study found the samples to more closely match Abyssinians and Bejas, both Negroid peoples, then Europeans or Western Asians. Incidentally Chompollion-Figaec does not consider Abyssinians or Bejas to be black, even though anyone looking at an Ethiopian or Beja from a mile away, can perceive them to be distinctly Africoid. Chompollion-Figaec was following Sir Grafton Elliot Smith's belief in the "Brown Mediterranean" race, who's living representatives are the Beja, Abyssinian, Galla, Somalian, Silluk, and Massai, peoples of Northeast and East Africa. But nonetheless, of the a large sample of mummies studied Chompillion-Figaec states:
"Dr. Larry investigated this problem in Egypt; he examined a large number of mummies, studied their skulls, recognized the principle characteristics, tried to identify them in the various races living in Egypt, and succeeded in doing so. The Abyssinian seemed to him to combine them all, except for the black race. The Abyssinian has large eyes, an agreeable glance.prominent cheekbones; the cheeks form a regular triangle with prominent angles of the jawbone and mouth; the lips are thick without being everted as in Blacks; the teeth are fine, just slightly protruding [maxillary prognathisms]; finally, the complexion is merely copper-colored: such are the Abyssinians observed by Dr. Larry generally known as Berbers or Barabras, present-day inhabitants of Nubia." [Egypte Ancienne, p. 27]
The peoples in question Chompollion-Figaec is speaking of are the Bejas of Upper Egypt and northern Sudan. They are referred to sometimes as "Berbers." Copper is a dark-brown complexion, which is very interesting, in light of journals cited by Eurocentric apologists, claiming Egyptians to be purely Caucasoid. And please keep in mind that Chompollion-Figaec was himself a Eurocentric and was not the slightest bit even remotely crazy about classifying ancient Egyptians as black or even in having Negroid affinities. Yet with the rare honesty characteristic of the early Egyptologist, stated that the Egyptian mummies unearthed most closely resembled Abyssinians and Bejas, than they did Western Asians or Europeans. Which makes one wonder when reading the journals cited by Eurocentrics, where did these mummies Chompollion-Figaec spoke of, all go? The answer is obvious to anyone, the modern journals are obviously leaving out a lot of details they do not want us to know about.
DNA is the next method used by Eurocentric scholars to whiten the ancient Egyptians. The harp upon DNA studies as their evidence the ancient Egyptians were white. But what they do not tell you is that DNA studies are still young and not perfect. And also, that only a small handful of mummies have ever been tested, some of which (like an annonymous 12th dynasty king) were found to have Negroid genes.
For instance, a DNA study was done on various Jews around the world, and while finding the Ashkenazens and Sephardim to be very close genetically and therefore being of the same common Hebrew stock, the exact same was not found of Ethiopian Jews, whom were shown to be descendants of Ethiopian converts to Judaism. Another study conducted by London University found the exact different results. This study found Ethiopian Jews to share a common DNA pattern with Ashkenazens and Sephardim, and to be therefore of a common Hebrew stock with them. How is it that two separate DNA studies on the same people, yield different results? What this shows is DNA studies are imperfect and can be manipulated to suite political agendas. Could not it be the same with studies of Egyptians? In light of the physical anthropological studies cited above on this page, any study which claims ancient Egyptians had no black admixture is absolutely ludicrous. Besides, according to a DNA study by G. Paoli, the ABO typing of the ancient Egyptians was most closely matched by the Harratins , a Negroid Berber people of southern Morocco, southern Algeria, and northern Mauritania. It has been claimed by some that the Haratins are the descendants of freed Sub-Saharan slaves. But this cannot be established, since the DNA patterns of the Haratins are not found in Sub-Saharans, nor are they found in any of the "white" Berber tribes Haratins are supposed to have been owned by and mixed with. The DNA pattern of the Haratins is very unique, thus establishing them firmly as a Hamitic race. Their presence has been long recorded in the region, and their origins, a mystery. The Haratins shall be discussed in a later section.
Pictures is another means through which Eurocentrics try and "prove" Egyptians were white. But Egypt's native population was mixed, and as all mixed-race populations, you get a variation in phenotypes. While the most Caucasian or racially ambiguous images are shown to prove their point, what Eurocentrics do not show you, are images of Egyptians with clear Africoid features. Such as the following ones below.
Predynastic statue of the god Osiris found at Abydos
Old Kingdom statue of the goddess Isis suckling Horus
Predynastic Egyptian youth
A clear Badarian sculptour with clear Africoid features of an Egyptian woman
A bas-relief image of a predynastic Egyptian nobleman known as Lord Tera Neter[a Anu]
A bas-relief image of Egyptian women making perfume
An Old Kingdom statue of Imhotep, the great architect, poet, astronomer, doctor, and priest, during Pharaoh Zoser's reign
Pharaoh Sesostris I of the 12th Dynasty
Pharaoh Akhenaton and his family worshipping the Aton
A bas-relief of Nefertiti worshipping the Aton at her very own tomb
Two of Akhenaton and Nefertiti's daughters
And then there is how the Egyptians saw themselves to outsiders. While Egyptians perceived themselves as lighter in complexion than Nubians to the south, what Eurocentrics do not tell you, is that the Egyptians also perceived themselves as darker than white Libyans and olive-colored Semites. As can be seen in this image. Here we see the first three figures are Libyans, whom the Egyptians called "Tamahua" which means "People Created white." Their nose is aquiline, their lips thin, their skin color very pale white, and their hair reddish-blond. They are followed by a Nubian, with classical African features, dark ebony skin, and black woolly hair. The figure after is a Semite with brown hair, an aquiline nose, and olive skin. The last figure to the far right is an Egyptian. Note the dark-brown skin, black curly braided hair, and the small semi-aquiline nose. The Egyptians were clearly not of the same race as the three Libyans and the one Semite. And likewise here is a picture of a group of Semitic pastoralists with their animals, and two Egyptians. The two Egyptians are depicted in a much far darker color than the Semites. Which show Egyptians were not the same race as them. The only picture in which an Egyptian is painted the same complexion as a Semite or Libyan, is one of Ramses II slaughtering some Libyan, Semitic, and Nubian enemies. Considering the 19th Dynasty was a white dynasty, it ought to be expected Ramses II would be the same complexion as Semites and Libyans. But all pictured showing typical Egyptian natives, always have them as being a much darker hue than Libyans and Semites. And this is in keeping with the eye witness statements by Greek writers like Herodotus, Aristotle, Lucian, and others, whom described the ancient Egyptians as being black-skinned or "melanchroes" with curly hairs. The explaination given by Eurocentrics that "melanos" merely means dark, cannot be established, since the context in which it is used by Greek writers clearly means very dark, and not just merely dark. The term "melanos" and "melanchroes" is never used on such dark-skinned races as Persians, Syrians, Phoenicians, and Arabs. Only on Egyptians, Ethiopians, and East Indians. This goes to show the context in which melanchroes was used menat black or very dark. Of course Egyptians were not as dark as Nubians, but were still much darker than Europeans and Western Asians. Even today amongst black peoples in Africa there is variation in blackness. The same is true of the ancient Egyptians.
Contrary to what Eurocentrics claim, the ancient Egyptians were a dark-skinned people with racial affinities to Black Africans. While not unmixed black, were still black enough to be considered black in the western world. They were in truth a mixed-race people. And like all peoples of mixed ancestry, their features morphed from near Negroid to near-Eurpoid, with all kinds of variations in between. The position held by Eurocentrics that the ancient Egyptians were white people is pure myth and nonsense
you might also want to read a mainstream egyptologist named ian shaw who wrote a book called enclyopedia of egypt put out by oxford press
He pretty much concluds that upepr egypt was africa and that even in pre history where most of egyptain culture came from was the badarian
please read this book
james henery breasted who was a racist egyptologist even admits this.
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