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Strouhal studied predynastic hair remains and found that over
80 percent were of "Negroid" or "part-Negroid" type using the
rigid extreme definition of "Negroid."
Strouhal, Eugen Evidence of the early penetration of Negroes into prehistoric
Egypt. IN: Journal of African history 12 (1971) p. 1-9. 1971
Williams, Bruce, "The Lost Pharaohs of Nubia,"
Archaeology 33/5 September/October 1980 12ff. .
Most surprising, evidence that early pharaohs ruled in A-Group Nubia was discovered by the Oriental Institute at Qustul, almost at the modern Sudanese border. A cemetery of large tombs contained evidence of wealth and representations of the rulers and their victories. Other representations and monuments could then be identified, and in the process, a lost kingdom, called Ta-Seti or Land of the Bow, was discovered. In fact, the cemetery at Qustul leads directly to the first great royal monuments of Egypt in a progression. Qustul in Nubia could well have been the seat of Egypt's founding dynasty.
Figure 1: The decoration of the Qustul Incense Burner, as restored. A sacrificial procession contains the earliest definite image of a pharaoh with his crown and falcon-label. Oriental Institute Nubian Expedition.
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