Here are some references to what I refer
J Synchrotron Radiat. 2003 Sep 1;10(Pt 5):387-92.
Microbeam synchrotron imaging of hairs from Ancient Egyptian mummies.
Bertrand L, Doucet J, Dumas P, Simionovici A, Tsoucaris G, Walter P.
Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR 171
du CNRS, 6 Rue des Pyramides, Paris, France.
Developments in microfocus synchrotron techniques have led to new
results regarding the long-term alteration of archaeological samples
of biological origin. Here, ancient hair samples from two Egyptian
mummies have been analyzed using a conjunction of structural and
elemental synchrotron methods. In this favored context of
conservation, structural analysis revealed a remarkable preservation
of keratin supramolecular organization at any observed length scale.
Bulk keratin structure has therefore not been modified significantly
over 2000 years. However, infrared spectroscopy indicated a partial
disorganization of keratins close to the hair surface through
polypeptide bond breakage. Elemental mapping showed a strongly
heterogeneous distribution which can be related to mummification and
""....Nose form is function largely of climatic factors,such as temperature and mositure content of the air,rather then a simple result of racial affinities. The nose serves moisten the inspired air,so in the drier regions of thwe world people have noses which pocess the greatest surface area of the moucous membrane,a condition achieved by the longer ,more narrow nose form;so among desert and mountain peoples the narrow nose is predominant. Even in cold and drier climates the Eskimos have a narrow nasal aperature,which provides an effiecent mechanism for warming as well as moistening the inspired air. It is simple matter of fact that a high narrow nasal opening can warm and mositen air more effeciently than a short borad one,and in climates where the moisture content of the air is very low ,selective forces act on this particular nose form ,wheather the dryness is due to intense heat or intense cold[Table 3-8]
Since face form is due to the interaction of the growth processes of several facial bones,and single feature is interacting forces. This is especially true of nose form,whose width is correlated with climate,as noted above ,but also with the size and proportion of the upper dental arch.As the palate gets wider,the nasal aperature becomes broader. The case of the Austrlian Aboriginees is a good example;though they live in a very dry area of the world,their noses are extremely broad ,and this dimension is related to the chewing process exerted on the velop. Also,prongnathism tends to be associated with a short borad nose,and significant correlation is found between the length of the skull base and nasal width.
These factors of climatic influence and structural interrelationship suggest that human face form is extremely complex,numerous varible being invovled in growth and development. Conclusions should not be drawn about relationships between two populations on the basis of a similairty in structure ,because face form[like the small statue in pgymies and Negritos discussed above] develops according to local factors of natural selction. It is not ncessary to postulate migrations and intermixtures to explain similairites between populations,as once was done for the Nilotic face form found in groups like the Nuer,Shilluk,and others in Eastern Africa. At one time their long striaght noses were believed to be due to contact and interbreeding with caucasoid groups form Western Asia. subsequent genetic studies donot borne this theory out . No doubt,over a period of thousand years,contact with Western Asia populations has taken place and some interbreeding has resulted,but people with Nilotic face are the result of local selective forces acting on the population;it is not merely a matter of interbreeding between races......."""""
Race,Types,and Ethnic Groups
the problem with human variation
The Egyptian Cinderella. Shirley Climo. Illustrated by Ruth Heller.
NY: Harper Collins, 1989.
This takes place in sixth century B.C., Egypt. Our heroine Rhodopis,
which means rosy cheeked or sun burnt, was kidnapped by pirates and
sold as a slave. Teased by other servants because of her fair Grecian
skin, they ordered her around. A falcon, the symbol of the god Horus,
brought one of her beautiful sandals back to her. The falcon gave the
other to Amasis the Pharaoh. He knew it was a sign from Horus. In a
chariot, he searched for a girl to fit the sandal. He found her, and
though she wasn't Egyptian, the Pharaoh said she was the most
Egyptian of all--her green eyes matched the Nile, her hair was
feathery as papyrus, etc.
The Roman historian Strabo first recorded it in the first century
B.C. It is both fact and fable.
Fact: A Greek slave girl, Rhodopis, married Pharaoh Amasis (Dynasty
XXVI, 570-526 B.C.) and became his queen.
What is believed: Rhodopis was born in Northern Greece, kidnapped by
pirates, and was sold to a man on the island of Samos. A fellow
slave, a homely little man called Aesop, told her stories of animals.
When grown, bought by Charaxos in Egypt, slaves were given gifts by
owners if they were favored, and many lived more comfortably than
free servants did. Ancient Egyptian gold was mixed with iron at times
and turned red. Rose red slippers are possible.
Horus, the Egyptian sky god and deity of living people, was believed
to appear on Earth as a falcon.
My opinion is that this has great historical backup and is very
+++Notice that Kemetians teased the Grecian women for having fair
skin,but Egyptians being the egalitarian people that they are
accepted her complexion by later relating it in a metaphysical
Herodotus Histories (Loeb)
[2.133.1] After what happened to his daughter, the following happened
next to this king: an oracle came to him from the city of Buto,
announcing that he had just six years to live and was to die in the
[2.133.2] The king took this badly, and sent back to the oracle a
message of reproach, blaming the god that his father and his uncle,
though they had shut up the temples, and disregarded the gods, and
destroyed men, had lived for a long time, but that he who was pious
was going to die so soon.
[2.133.3] But a second oracle came announcing that for this very
reason his life was hastening to a close: he had done what was
contrary to fate; Egypt should have been afflicted for a hundred and
fifty years, and the two kings before him knew this, but not he.
[2.133.4] Hearing this, Mycerinus knew that his doom was fixed.
Therefore, he had many lamps made, and would light these at nightfall
and drink and enjoy himself, not letting up day or night, roaming to
the marsh country and the groves and wherever he heard of the
likeliest places of pleasure. [2.133.5] This was his recourse, so
that by turning night into day he might make his six years into
twelve and so prove the oracle false.
[2.134.1] This king, too, left a pyramid, but far smaller than his
father's, each side twenty feet short of three hundred feet long,
square at the base, and as much as half its height of Ethiopian
stone. Some Greeks say that it was built by Rhodopis, the courtesan,
but they are wrong;
[2.134.2] indeed, it is clear to me that they say this without even
knowing who Rhodopis was (otherwise, they would never have credited
her with the building of a pyramid on which what I may call an
uncountable sum of money was spent), or that Rhodopis flourished in
the reign of Amasis, not of Mycerinus;
[2.134.3] for very many years later than these kings who left the
pyramids came Rhodopis, who was Thracian by birth, and a slave of
Iadmon son of Hephaestopolis the Samian, and a fellow-slave of Aesop
the story-writer. For he was owned by Iadmon, too, as the following
made crystal clear:
[2.134.4] when the Delphians, obeying an oracle, issued many
proclamations summoning anyone who wanted it to accept compensation
for the killing of Aesop, no one accepted it except the son of
Iadmon's son, another Iadmon; hence Aesop, too, was Iadmon's.
[2.135.1] Rhodopis came to Egypt to work, brought by Xanthes of
Samos, but upon her arrival was freed for a lot of money by Kharaxus
of Mytilene, son of Scamandronymus and brother of Sappho the poetess.
[2.135.2] Thus Rhodopis lived as a free woman in Egypt, where, as she
was very alluring, she acquired a lot of money--sufficient for such a
Rhodopis, so to speak, but not for such a pyramid.
[2.135.3] Seeing that to this day anyone who likes can calculate what
one tenth of her worth was, she cannot be credited with great wealth.
For Rhodopis desired to leave a memorial of herself in Greece, by
having something made which no one else had thought of or dedicated
in a temple and presenting this at Delphi to preserve her memory;
[2.135.4] so she spent one tenth of her substance on the manufacture
of a great number of iron beef spits, as many as the tenth would pay
for, and sent them to Delphi; these lie in a heap to this day, behind
the altar set up by the Chians and in front of the shrine itself.
[2.135.5] The courtesans of Naucratis seem to be peculiarly alluring,
for the woman of whom this story is told became so famous that every
Greek knew the name of Rhodopis, and later on a certain Archidice was
the theme of song throughout Greece, although less celebrated than
[2.135.6] Kharaxus, after giving Rhodopis her freedom, returned to
Mytilene. He is bitterly attacked by Sappho in one of her poems. This
is enough about Rhodopis.
Many Nordocentric Eurocentrics have used Rhodopius as proof that the
Ancient Kemetians had a beautiful blonde nordic queen,but the truth
is that she was Greek. She was not an real Egyptian. Also,a story
called the ''Red Rose Slippers'' refers to a Greek slave later bought
by Amasis and he married the slave. Notice also that the slave was
named Rhodopius[sun burnt] and she burned easily in the sun;thus
differentiating her from the darker Egyptian masses. Diodorus
Siclus also mentions her as being the builder of the fourth pyramid
of Menikare,but Herodotus corrects this misinformation as just being
incorrect assumptions by the Greek population at Naucratis.
From: Rogers, Spencer Lee, _Personal identification from human
remains_ 1987, "Hair often survives for a considerable time after
death and can be recognized as to color and to some extent texture. A
study in which hair was buried experimentally in the soil for a two
year period revealed that there was no appreciable change until after
one month, but it became streaked and brittle after one year. Two
years was found to be the maximum duration of Caucasian hair buried
underground." (p.8) On the same page it reads: "The color of eyes
during life cannot be determined from their appearance on a cadaver
since all eyes become a greenish brown shortly after death."